23考研外刊阅读《时代周刊》双语精读版训练_少数民族骨干计划考研



23考研外刊阅读《时代周刊》双语精读版训练_少数民族骨干计划考研

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全文字数:1460字

阅读时间:15分钟

上期翻译答案

In a 2021 review, researchers noted that exposure to these and other endocrine disruptors from food, consumer products and the environmentmay increasethe risk of obesity by a similar magnitude as more commonly cited culprits like lack of exercise or following a poor diet.

在2021年的一篇评述中,研究人员指出,在食物、消费品和环境中接触到这些和其他内分泌干扰物可能会增加肥胖的风险,其程度大致相当于缺乏运动或饮食不良等和肥胖相关的更常见因素。

1.magnitude: the great size or importance of something

2.culprit: the reason for a particular problem or difficulty

《本期内容》

双语阅读

According to Hale, grief canthrowthe bodyoff course, upsetting thegastrointestinaltract. For starters, stress can activate the sympathetic nervous system, more commonly known as the fight-or-flight response. In this survival state, “heart rate and blood pressure rise, as do levels of the hormone cortisol,” Hale adds. And when the body iswarding offdanger, it’s not focused on digestion or eating. And research has found that dietary changes can shift the microbiome in a matter of days.

根据黑尔的说法,悲伤会导致身体偏离原来的状态,扰乱肠胃系统。首先,压力可以激活交感神经系统,更常见的说法是“战斗或逃跑”反应。在这种应激状态下,“心率和血压升高,荷尔蒙皮质醇水平也升高,”黑尔补充道。当身体处在抵御危险的模式时,就不会专注于消化或进食。研究发现,饮食发生改变可以在几天内改变微生物群。

While it’s well known that heartache can make the belly ache, research examining the connection betweenbereavementstress andguthealth is limited. However, one 2020 paper published in the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry suggests that “gut microbiota may play a role in influencing health outcomes following bereavement” because chronic and ongoing stress can disrupt the microbiome.

虽然众所周知的是,心痛会导致肚子疼,但关于丧亲压力和肠道健康之间联系的研究数量有限。然而,2020年发表在《精神病学前沿》杂志上的一篇论文表明,“人们丧亲之后,肠道微生物群可能在影响健康状况方面发挥作用”,因为长期且持续不断的压力会扰乱微生物群。

Barely a decade ago, the brain was thought to be completely isolated from the rest of the body. So for Alviña, “the biggest mindset change” was the realization that the brain not only instructs the body to move and breathe, but that signals from the gut as well as other organs and tissues can also alter how the brain functions. How the mechanism behind this bidirectional communication works is an open question, but several possible explanations have emerged.

就在十年前,人们还认为大脑与身体的其他部分是相互独立的。翻译划线句,长按文末小程序码打卡,答案下期公布~这种双向交流背后的机制是如何运转的还有待讨论,但已经出现了几种可能的解释。

More directly, gut bacteria produce molecules such as dopamine and serotonin, which play vital roles in neural signaling. Low levels of these neurotransmitters can cause depression and neurological diseases like Parkinson’s.

更直接地说,肠道细菌产生多巴胺和血清素等分子,这些分子在神经信号传递中发挥着至关重要的作用。这些神经递质处于低水平会导致抑郁症和帕金森症等神经系统疾病。

These neurotransmitters might interact with the nerve endings of thevagusnerve—which is responsible for involuntary movements such as breathing and digestion, and connects the brain to most of the body’s organs, including the gut. Experiments on micebolsterthis view. For animals where the vagus nerve was cut, microbiome-mediated effects on their behavior disappeared.

这些神经递质可能会与迷走神经的神经末梢相互作用(迷走神经负责如呼吸和消化等非自主活动),并建立起大脑与多数身体器官(包括肠道)之间的联系。在老鼠身上进行的实验也支持了这一观点。对于迷走神经被切断的动物,微生物群对其行为的影响消失了。

本文节选自:TIME(时代周刊)

发布时间:2022.07.02

作者:Connie Chang and Juli Fraga

原文标题:How Grief Upsets Your Gut Health

词汇积累

1.gastrointestinal

/ˌɡæstrəʊɪnˈtɛstɪnəl/

adj.胃肠的

2.bereavement

/bɪˈriːvmənt/

n.丧友,丧亲;丧失

3.gut

/ɡʌt/

n. 肠,肠道; 勇气;(尤指大的)胃,肚子; 本能; 核心,实质

v. 取出……的内脏(以便烹饪); 毁坏(建筑物)的内部

4.vagus

/ˈveɡəs/

n.迷走神经

5. bolster

/ˈbəʊlstə/

v. 增强,激励; 巩固(地位),加强; 改善,改进

n. 长枕,垫枕; 承梁(用于支撑或减少摩擦); 托木

词组搭配

1.throw off course 脱离轨道

2.ward off 避开;挡住

写作句总结

Barely a decade ago, the brain was thought to be completely isolated from the rest of the body.

结构: Barely … ago, … was thought to be completely isolated from the rest of ….

…前,…被认为与其它…相互独立

例句: Barely several centuries ago, the Americas was thought to be completely isolated from the rest of earth.

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